Overall, PAYT does not lead to increased illegal dumping. Hundreds of communities with PAYT have been asked about the impact on illegal dumping. About 20% say there is an issue that lasts about 3 months, and that enforcement helps20. Research on illegally dumped waste in PAYT communities shows the majority is not household in origin (and thus, not due to PAYT) and the most common household items dumped are bulky items (appliances, sofas, etc.). PAYT programs should have convenient methods for citizens to get rid of bulky items (tags, fees, appointments, coupons for one free dump, etc.) to avoid illegal dumping issues.