City costs: Two large statewide surveys (WI, IA) showed that PAYT led to no increase in costs (or town workloads) in 2/3 of communities implementing PAYT.

Hauler costs: PAYT itself can be implemented in ways that lead to virtually no cost increase (bag programs without special cans or billing, keeping the same collection system, etc).17 If the hauler does not currently provide recycling service there will be some costs associated with new carts and setting up collection routes. These are typically passed through to the households in the rates. Recycling is cheaper than trash, but not free, as trucks must still stop by the house, collect materials, and deliver them to a recycling center.

Household costs: PAYT works by charging residents for the volume of trash they dispose and encouraging recycling. Under a PAYT program some households will pay more (those throwing away a lot of trash and not recycling), others will not see significant changes in their rates, and other households (avid recyclers, small households, elderly households, etc.) will pay less.